Along with spring comes, and allergies. Many people are predisposed to develop at least once in their lives had an allergic reaction.
But what is an allergic reaction?
The human immune system has defense mechanisms against many different substances found in the air we breathe, the foods we eat as well as objects with which we come into contact. All these substances can potentially cause an allergic reaction to allergens call, main of which are: the flower pollen, animal dander, household dust, food, medicines. Also severe allergies can cause insect bites (wasp, etc.)
Blood circulating antibodies purpose is to isolate and destroy any foreign substance that may harm us. Those antibodies involved in the mechanisms of allergy called immunoglobulin E (immunoglobulineE briefly or IgE).
In people with allergic predisposition percentage of such antibodies is increased.
Each type of IgE specific to a particular allergen (eg for dust). This explains why some are sensitive to an allergenic substance and several others (most guys IgE)
So when the body comes into contact first with any of these agents launched a series of reactions.
Initially we produce specific antibodies E. Then they deposited on the surface of special cells called mast cells. These cells are abundant in the nose, eyes, skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract, containing chemicals (eg histamine) known as "intermediaries". The next time the allergenic substance will come into contact with the body, 'arrested' by the R-sensitive antibodies that in turn cause the secretion of mediators. The mediators responsible for the symptoms of allergic reaction:
Shape ALLERGIKIS REACTION
MAIN allergic diseases
In sch.4 showing the principal organs of the human body influenced by mediators of inflammation and the symptoms caused.
And used an inappropriate term "hay fever". The main symptom is nasal congestion, and therefore difficulty in nasal breathing, runny nose, sneezing. A high percentage of patients with allergic rhinitis suffer from bronchial asthma.
Typical is the congestion of the eyes, tearing and itching
Atopic dermatitis or eczema
Which occurs when an allergenic agent in contact with skin. The dermatitis is characterized by itching, redness and peeling skin.
It occurs in most of her childhood and a high proportion of these '(over 50%) will develop and asthma.
Characterized by itching and red blisters that may flock. It is an allergic reaction caused mainly by drugs, infections, and foods. Major foods are responsible for such reactions are: shellfish, eggs, cow's milk, nuts, wheat, etc.
Food, drugs such as penicillin and insect stings can cause systemic allergic reaction called "anaphylaxis", which may endanger the lives of sufferers.
On the main symptoms: sensation of heaviness in the chest, coughing, wheezing respiration, shortness of breath
Most often the symptoms are so characteristic that does not need any confirmation that this is an allergic reaction.
But there are cases with atypical symptoms such proof the existence of allergic predisposition is important in treatment.
Listed below the main diagnostic methods:
1. Allergic skin TEST (PRICKTESTS)
The most commonly used method.
It is scarification (usually through the surface of the forearm) and then injected a drop of each allergen substance.
The existence of reaction (inflammation-swelling-itching) proves the existence of allergic predisposition in this matter.
2. BLOOD (RAST) TEST
Blood test more costly, with no immediate results as previously mentioned. It is used mainly in cases where it is impossible to carry out skin tests (eg cases of patients taking certain medicines, etc.)
3. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL IgE
Which is increased in people with allergic predisposition
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
Prevention consists primarily in avoiding (if possible) of the allergen and if 'factor as it is known (eg allergy to cat hair). Also, removal from work or home is substantial proof that a cause of frequent and severe allergic crisis. Some are fixed annually in the spring symptoms of allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma (seasonal allergic rhinitis & seasonal allergic asthma). In such cases we must start the appropriate treatment about a month before the start of spring. This will prevent the outbreak or would minimize the possible symptoms.
If an allergic symptom should contact the specialist (ENT, pulmonologist, allergist) as the system of the body is infected. Treatment depends mainly on the severity of symptoms.
First-line drugs against allergies are antihistamines and cortisone, which can be administered systematically (pill, injection) or local (eg ointments, nasal drops or ocular application, sprays for inhalation, etc.).
In addition to decongestants (eg in nasal congestion). Another class of drugs are antilefkotrienia used in bronchial asthma.
In severe allergic-type reactions, the drug should be administered directly by the adrenaline.
Finally, immunotherapy, which consists of regular injections, which can make the immune system more tolerant to different allergens. The nature of this treatment lasts 3-5 years.