Saturday 18 May 2024
Diabetes mellitus


Nikos Stathatos, Endocrinologist

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body does not produce enough insulin or can not use it. Insulin is a hormone which this is necessary for the body can use the various nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) taken with food and converts them into energy.

The exact causes of this disease is not known, but two factors certainly play a very important role: the first is heredity. People who have relatives with diabetes are more likely to show themselves this problem. The second is the environment. By this term we refer to factors such as nutrition, pachysarkeia and lack of exercise.

To make a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, the doctor may do one of the following two tests: Measurement of blood sugar when the patient is hungry or sugar curve.

By measuring fasting blood sugar, if the value is between 100 and 125 mg / dL, then we say this man is pro-sugar. Patients with pre-sugar are at increased risk for complications of increased blood sugar, but maybe a little less than patients with diabetes mellitus. If the value is 126 mg / dL or greater, then the diagnosis is diabetes mellitus. These prices should be confirmed in a second time.

The curve of sugar, sugar is measured with the patient fasting and 2 hours after drink a sugary solution. If the measurement is 2 hours between 140 and 199 mg / dL, then the diagnosis is pre-sugar. If 200 mg / dL or greater, then the diagnosis is diabetes mellitus.

Finally, another way to make a diagnosis if there is a random measurement of blood sugar over 200 mg / dL, and the patient has symptoms compatible with increased blood sugar: polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, weight loss.

Diabetes mellitus is divided into 2 categories. Diabetes type 1 and type 2.


This form of diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that is caused by a problem of the immune (defense) system. In a health body, especially cells in pankreas called beta cells produce insulin. In cases of diabetes type 1 diabetes, the immune system confuses them for foreign cells and destroys them (as does the bacteria for example). When a large proportion of these cells are destroyed (90%), symptoms of diabetes mellitus occur.

This is the rarest form of diabetes mellitus and represents about 5-10% of cases.


In this case, the beta cells still produce insulin. However, other body cells do not respond properly to insulin produced, or the quantity produced is sufficient to meet the needs of the organization. That is, these people, no insulin in their bodies but not working as it should. Some of these patients regulate their sugar to lose weight, change their diet and increase exercise. Other people have to take one or more medications (including insulin).


A particular form of diabetes is diabetes that occurs during a ekgymosynis. The diagnosis is given, even if diabetes remains after the birth, does not exclude the possibility that existed before the ekgymosynis without being diagnosed. The Criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus are different:

- Fasting Glucose> 126 mg / dL

- Random measure sugar> 200 mg / dL

These values must be confirmed by repetition.

If not diagnosed in this way, then it must be tested with glucose. The criteria for diagnosis in this way in the following table.




100 g Γλυκόζης



Σάκχαρο Νηστείας



1 ώρα



2 ώρες



3 ώρες



75 g Γλυκόζης



Σάκχαρο Νηστείας



1 ώρα



2 ώρες



The best method is thought that the 100 grams of glucose.

If there is no increased risk based on history ekgyou every woman in early pregnancy for diabetes, the more control is between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation.


Diabetes often remains undiagnosed even for several years either because they cause symptoms, either because many of the symptoms caused are minor. It is very important but the diagnosis be made as early as possible because that only we can prevent complications.

Some of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus are:

- Frequent urination (polyuria)

- Excessive thirst (polydipsia)

- Excessive hunger

- Unexpected weight loss

- Nervousness

- Blurred vision


If patients who have diabetes do not properly regulate blood sugar, many problems can occur over time. Although very often the increased sugar does not cause symptoms, sustained hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar) is a great stress on the body which can cause many problems. These problems are the implications of sugar, comprising:

- Neuropathy: nerve damage. Usually causes problems in the legs and other body parts

- Retinopathy: Damage to the eyes

- Renal disease: kidney damage. The kidneys clean the blood of harmful substances which can be accumulated in these cases.

- Heart problems are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus


From the moment you make a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, each patient must make some necessary adjustments in their daily lives to be able to regulate blood sugar and to remain healthy. This requires a process that takes time, patience and perseverance.

First of all diabetic patients must learn to count the sugar. There are many different sakcharometra, which is very easy to use and require very little blood to make the measurements. Then, each patient must learn how to adapt the diet to blood sugar remains below the set. This is a process that is not the overnight, but requires time and constant synnergasia your doctor and nutritionist to each patient. This needs a lot of attention because a number of myths circulating about the diet of a diabetic patient. For this reason, it is essential that each patient received training from the authority for food and not to trust people opinions of non-specific.

For if needed medicines (including insulin) or not, the doctor decides on the basis of the initial examination of each patient. This is very important to stress that no medicine can not regulate sugar without proper nutrition and increased physical activity. The pattern of activity decided with your doctor. Usually, any patient who has just been diagnosed with diabetes (especially type 2) should be examined by an ophthalmologist and a cardiologist. Once this test, we decided to treatment (diet, medications, exercise). Patients with type 1 diabetes require insulin from day of diagnosis.


- Diabetes mellitus is a very synithismeni disease which is related to the most common form of the pachysarkeia.

- It is "insidious" because it can be for years without causing symptoms but prokalontas damage to vital organs (heart, brain, kidneys).

- Is often associated with other problems (eg hypertension, elevated cholesterol, elevated uric acid) which also affect the health of the patient.

- There is no cure. But it can be treated consistently by significantly reducing the likelihood of potentially serious complications.

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