Sunday 23 June 2024
Tubercolosis

Tuberculosis

CAUSES

Caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Bacillus of Koch (the name of the physician who discovered and).

TRANSMISSION

Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which may be offensive to all organa.I transmission is primarily through the respiratory tract (droplet from the speech, laughing, coughing, sneezing, etc.).

SYMPTOMS

The main symptoms of TB are

* Cough
* Expectoration
* Sweats
* Dekatiki febrile movement (mainly in the afternoon)
* Payment
* Loss of body weight

DIANOSTIKOS CONTROL

* Chest X-ray
* Fymatinoantidrasi (mantoux)
* Search of Mycobacterium in sputum or other biological material of the body.

NB: The discovery of Mycobacterium is set with certainty the diagnosis.

PREVENTION

This is mainly achieved by early detection of new infections and to vaccination (tuberculostatics vaccine BCG).

THERAPY

Treatment must fulfill 3 basic principles

1. combination of several drugs (because mycobacterium easily develop resistance - "resistance")

2. the decision be made once a day

3. life is many months of treatment (regimens used are 6 months, 9M, 12M, 18 months)

For the main tuberculostatics its strength and its main side effects see Table 1 below.

Tuberculostatics


Dosage


Side Effects

Isoniazid


Adults 5mg/kg BW

Children 10-20mg/kg CV


Ipatotoxikotis, Peripheral neuropathy, Drug-drug interactions

Rifampicin


Adults 10mg/kg bw

Children 10-20mg/kg CV


Gastrointestinal disorders, interactions with other drugs, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, rash

PYRAZINAMIDI


Adults & children 15-30mg/kg CV


Hepatitis, rash, hyperuricemia (gout rarely)

ETHAMVOUTOLI


Adults & children 15-25mg/kg CV


Optic neuritis

Streptomycin


Adults 15mg/kg bw

Children 20-40mg/kg CV


Ototoxikotis, Nefrotoxikotis

Table 1

SOME MAJOR NEED TO KNOW

* A regular monitoring of the patient in the evolution of health but also because tuberculostatics have many side effects (damage to liver, kidney, visual and auditory nerve, increased uric acid, etc.).
* About 2 weeks of starting treatment, the disease ceases to spread.
* The dermoantidrasi tuberculosis or fymatinoantidrasi or commonly mantoux, allows us to know if someone has a positive molynthei.I mantoux means contamination but not necessarily nosisi.Thetiki is also following vaccination. NB: the mantoux is in front of the forearm (Fig.1). The result we see after 48-72 ores.An point that has been created by fymatinoantidrasi skin induration, is measured at the transverse diameter (figure .2). considered positive when the induration is greater than 10 mm and in some cases if more than 5 chiliosta.Apli redness of the skin is not assessed.

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fig.1

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Fig.2

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